>>

.

................................................................................................. 4

1. - -

(

).................................................... 17

1.1 ..................................................................................................

17

1.2 - ................................................................................................. 23

1.3 .......................................................... 33

1.4 - ...................................... 47

1............................................................................. 62

2.

( )........... 66

2.1 - ................................................................................ 66

2.2 ................................................................................. 72

2.3 .................................................................. 84

2............................................................................. 92

3. -

....................................................................................................................... 95

3.1 .................. 99

3.2 - ....................................................... 121

3.3 - .................................................................................................. 130

3.4 - ........................... 140

3.4.1 - ................. 140

3.4.2

- 150

3........................................................................... 155

......................................................................................... 159

........................................................................ 163

......................................................................................... 184

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: . - . . - 2019. 2019

:

  1. 800X600
  2. 3.1.
  3. I. .
  4. 2.1 -
  5. . Al-Cu, Al-Ni-Cu, Al-Mg . . 2019 ., 2019
  6. -
  7. 2.2
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- - , - - - - - - - - - -